Teaching Vocabulary Items through Contextualization and Picture to Elementary Iranian EFL Students

Teaching Vocabulary Items through Contextualization and Picture to Elementary Iranian EFL Students

Omid Akbari
University Putra, Malaysia

Bio Data:
Omid Akbari is an English language lecturer holding an M.A. degree in TEFL from Tarbiat Modarres University in Tehran. He has been teaching English language courses for undergraduate students for 8 years. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in TESL at UPM (University Putra Malaysia). His areas of interest include language teaching methodology and vocabulary learning.

This research was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of teaching vocabulary items through pictures and contextualization to elementary Iranian EFL students. The subjects were divided into three groups each consisting of 32 male learners within the age range of 12-15. The subjects were assigned to three almost homogeneous groups, based on their scores on a general test which had been standardized and validated before. All the students came from the same linguistic background and the teacher and teaching materials were the same for the three groups. The experimental groups received different treatments. In one class vocabulary items were presented through pictures, and in the other class they were used in contexts and model sentences. In the third class, control group, the new words were presented through definitions and synonyms. The treatment of the study took 10 sessions. Before starting the treatment, two similar tests were prepared as the pretest and posttest. Each of them consisted of 45 multiple-choice items of vocabulary. They enjoyed the criteria of validity and reliability. At the first session, the pretest was administered to determine if there was any significant differences between the three groups. By utilizing one-way ANOVA technique, it was revealed that the three groups were almost homogeneous. At the end of the term, the posttest was administered. Then, the statistical techniques of one-way ANOVA and t-test were utilized to analyze the collected data. Analysis of the results in the posttest revealed significant differences between picture group and context group, on the one hand, and between these groups and the control group, on the other hand. The results showed that though both picture and context enhanced vocabulary development of the learners, picture seemed to be better than context. That is, picture group outperformed the other two groups significantly. Hence, it was concluded that the contribution of pictures in teaching vocabulary items to elementary Iranian EFL students led to a higher level of vocabulary improvement.

Key words: EFL, Elementary, Vocabulary, Context, Contextualization, Picture

Vocabulary as a major component of language learning has been the object of numerous studies each of which has its own contribution to the field. Laufer (1997) states that vocabulary learning is at the heart of language learning and language use. In fact, it is what makes the essence of a language. Without vocabulary speakers cannot convey meaning and communicate with each other in a particular language.
During the period of 1940-1970 vocabulary was neglected in teacher-preparation programs. As Allen (1983) mentioned, this was due to three crucial reasons. First, many felt that one must know how the words work together in English sentences; therefore, grammar should be emphasized more than vocabulary. Second, some methodologists believed that the meanings of words could not be adequately taught. So, it was better to avoid teaching them. Third, some specialists were afraid that being exposed to too many words might lead the students to make mistakes in sentence construction. However, any experienced teacher knows that even when students have more or less mastered the English grammar, they still face masses of unknown words as they continue to study.
A number of research studies recently conducted have dealt with lexical problems of language learners. Scholars such as Allen (1983) and Bowen (1985) have shown that lexical problems frequently interfere with communication; in other words, communication breaks down when people do not use the right words. Therefore, there is an increased interest in vocabulary as a component of every language. Vocabulary is viewed as a significant component of standardized language tests; and attention is being given by methodologists and program planners to the most effective ways to promote the command of vocabulary among learners.
There are various techniques and devices for teaching of vocabulary in methodology textbooks. Weatherford (1990) stated that there are a variety of classroom techniques for second language vocabulary learning. The techniques include rote rehearsal; the use of visual aids; rote-playing; vocabulary learning in a specific cultural context; vocabulary learning through art activities; the root-word approach; mnemonic techniques, such as the key word approach; use of the notion of semantic fields to illustrate conceptual relationships between words; two types of vocabulary learning through music (simple song, and the desuggestopedia method); physical activities, as in Total Physical Response instruction; study of cognates and direct borrowing; study of loan translations; use of soap-opera style drama tapes in the language laboratory; analogies; computer-assisted instruction through drills and games; and synonyms.
One way to add new words to one’s vocabularies is by locating words in the dictionary and learning what they mean. But this is a slow process to increase word power. Another way is through context. As we listen and read, we often meet new words in contexts. O’Harra (1984) claimed that context is the setting or surroundings of a word; therefore, when we listen to someone’s talk, the context of a word is the statement that includes the word. Sometimes we read words in a written context. Thus, the paragraph may tell us what the new word means, or enough clues may be provided in the sentence which contains the word; or even one or two nearby words may explain the meaning of a new word we find in the text when reading.
Moreover, according to Raimes (1983), pictures can help the teachers and students in teaching and learning vocabulary, and other components of language. As a matter of fact pictures can help students to imagine the real object. In short, the concept of picture is the shared experience of many people because of their matching ability which enables them to match the words with pictures. It should be mentioned that pictures as mental representation of mind can better affect learning. Pictures are used in the classrooms as teaching devices and can be found to give practice in most skills and components and in most stages of teaching. Pictures can motivate students and nowadays, motivation is found to be an important factor in learning everything. Allen (1983) also has shown that the more modalities are involved in association, the more readily items will become available in various situations. Items should therefore be presented in association with visual representations (pictures, objects), aurally, and in association with activities of all kinds. Hence, there is a great need for research into the vocabulary teaching methods to guide us toward the most effective one.

Statement of the problem and purpose of the study
Although vocabulary has been the subject of many studies, few researches have revealed the effective techniques of vocabulary teaching. So it is of prime importance to attempt to find the most effective technique of vocabulary teaching. According to Allen(1983), all experienced language teachers confirm the important role of words and know that the lack of them leads to feeling of insecurity; on the other hand, the teachers’ attitude toward teaching vocabulary and the classroom techniques varies enormously. Different techniques are used by teachers, such as teaching the words: through lists, translation, synonyms, antonyms, contexts, realia, and so on. Some teachers believe before teaching vocabulary to their students, they should have been taught the grammar of the foreign language. Therefore, they give little or no attention to vocabulary. Allen (1983) also states that in many English language classes, even where teachers have devoted much time to vocabulary teaching, the results have been disappointing. Sometimes, after months or even years of English, many of the words most needed have never been learned. Especially in countries where English is not the main language of communication, many teachers want more help with vocabulary instruction than they used to receive.
Vocabulary is an inseparable part of any language learning process. It would be impossible to learn a language without vocabulary. The important role of vocabulary has been emphasized in all different methods in language teaching. According to Rivers (1981), “vocabulary cannot be taught. It can be presented, explained, included in all kinds of activities, but it must be learned by the individual” (p. 110). She continues, “As language teachers, we must arouse interest in words and a certain excitement in personal development in this area” (p. 110). She suggests that language teachers must help their students by giving them ideas on how to learn vocabulary and some guidance on what to learn.
Poor vocabulary knowledge of elementary Iranian EFL students is a matter of serious concern among those in and around education, and their quest for finding suitable remedies is getting more and more intense. If this study manages to show an effective technique in vocabulary teaching, we may get some steps closer to finding of a remedy for poor vocabulary knowledge of our elementary EFL learners. Therefore, this study presents contextualization and picture methods in order to find one of the most effective techniques of vocabulary teaching. In the former, the new words are taught in the context using contextual clues and the students infer the meaning of words from the context. In the latter, the new words are taught through pictures, and board drawings. It should be noted that these two methods together with the traditional way of teaching vocabulary through definitions, synonyms, and translations are mostly used by Iranian teachers to teach vocabulary items to elementary EFL students. So it is of prime importance to find the most effective technique of vocabulary teaching.

Research Questions
Regarding the importance of the effective techniques of vocabulary teaching, purpose of the research and statement of the problem, the following research questions are put forward:
* Is picture more effective than contextualization in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students?
* Is picture more effective than traditional way in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students?
* Is contextualization more effective than traditional way in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students?

H0 I: Picture is not more effective than contextualization in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students.
H0 II: Picture is not more effective than traditional way in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students.
H0 III: Contextualization is not more effective than traditional way in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students.

Research Methods and Procedure
The subjects of this study were 96 elementary male students within the age range of 12-15 studying English at Simin Language Institute. They were randomly divided into three groups and by utilizing the statistical technique of one-way ANOVA, their close homogeneity was confirmed. Then, these three groups were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group, each consisting of 32 students. The two experimental groups received different treatments including teaching vocabulary items through contextualization and pictures. The control group received traditional treatment. That is, the vocabulary items were taught through definitions and synonyms.

The instrumentation used in this study included a general test of language proficiency, a pretest, and a posttest. The general test was a standard and validated test based on the book “New Generation” by Colin Granger and Digby Beaumont (1987) which is used at the institute. The aim of this test was to divide the students into three almost homogeneous groups. The pretest was a vocabulary test prepared by the researchers in the way described below: 100 vocabulary items were selected from the students` textbook. The researcher made a one hundred-item multiple-choice test and did a pilot study on a smaller group. 10 items were discarded and some changed. The reliability of the test was calculated to be 0.94.
To make the test valid, the researcher made a correlation between the students` grades on their final exam of the preceding semester and their grades on the researcher’s test in the pilot study. The correlation was 0.8116. The ninety-item multiple-choice test was split into two equal halves based on odd and even numbers. One part was considered as the pretest, and the other one as the posttest. The aim of the posttest was to reveal the efficacy of the treatments provided to the experimental groups during the semester.

First, the general test was administered to 160 subjects. The time given was one hour and the correct answer to each item received one point. There was no penalty for false responses. After taking the exam, each subject was rendered a grade based on his performance on the test. Out of 160 students, 99 students whose grades were between one standard deviation above and below the mean were selected, and divided randomly into three groups. The homogeneity of the groups was confirmed through statistical technique of one-way ANOVA. Three subjects were discarded later because of the problems they had. Then, the vocabulary pretest was administered to the three groups. The time given for this test was forty-five minutes, and the students were asked to answer the forty five-item vocabulary test. The correct answer to each item received one point, and there was no penalty for false responses.
The whole research project took place in one semester and the students were taught ten units of the book “New Generation”. During the semester, the new words of each unit were presented to the students through two methods of contextualization and pictures. In one of the experimental classes (contextualization group) the words were used in some model sentences, and by means of contextual cues the students inferred what the meaning of each word was. In the other experimental class (picture group), some pictures were prepared in which the new words were presented through them. The third class (control group), didn’t receive these types of treatment, but the new words were presented through definitions and synonyms. At the end of the semester vocabulary development of the students in all three groups were tested using the posttest. On the basis of these tests the efficacy of the two methods of vocabulary teaching were determined.(See the appendix for the test papers)

In order to find appropriate answers to the research questions of the study, several statistical procedures were utilized and the results are presented in the following section.

Analysis 1
A one-way ANOVA was utilized to find whether the three selected groups were almost homogeneous. To do so, their grades in the general test were used. The results are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
One-way ANOVA for performance on the general test

Source D.F. SS MS F ratio F critical
Between group 2 2.2424 1.1212 .0296 3.09
Within group 96 3633.9394 37.8535


As the results of the one-way ANOVA show, F ratio (.0296) doesn’t exceed the F critical value (3.09) at the .05 level of significance. This implies that there was no significant difference among the three groups and as a result the three groups were almost homogeneous.

Analysis 2
A one-way ANOVA was used to find how the control and two experimental groups performed in the pretest and whether they were homogeneous or not. To do so, their grades in the pretest of vocabulary was used. The results are presented in Table 2.

Table 2
One-way ANOVA for performance on the pretest

Source D.F. SS MS F ratio F critical
Between group 2 5.2500 2.6250 .0398 3.09
Within group 93 6129.2500 65.9059


As the results of the one-way ANOVA show, F ratio (.0398) doesn`t exceed the F critical value (3.09) at the .05 level of significance. This implies that there was no significant difference among the control and two experimental groups and as a result the three groups were almost the same.

Analysis 3
Another one-way ANOVA was conducted to see how the control and two experimental groups performed in the posttest and whether the differences among their means were significant. The results are presented in Table 3.

Table 3
One-way ANOVA for performance on the posttest

Source D.F. SS MS F ratio F critical
Between group 2 1681.8958 840.949 10.5255 3.09
Within group 93 7430.3438 79.8962


As the results of the one-way ANOVA in the table 3 show, F ratio (10.5255)  exceeds the F critical value (3.09) implying that there was a significant difference among subjects` performances on different methods of teaching vocabulary items. To find where this difference is located, a Scheffe Test was carried out, and the results are presented in Table 4.

Table 4
Scheffe Test with significant level .05 for performance on the posttest
G          G        G
r           rr
p           p         p
Mean  Method3           2         1
23.4688Group 3 (control)
25.3125Group 2 (context)
33.1250Group 1 (picture)                        **
( * ) Indicates significant differences among the groups.
Table 4 shows that these differences lay between group 1 (picture group) and group 3 (control group), and group 1 and group 2 (context group). In other words, group 1 performed better than group 2 and group 3.

Analysis 4
To see how each group performed in its pretest and posttest, paired t-test technique was utilized to compare the means of each group in its pretest and posttest performances. The results are presented in Tables 5, 6, and 7.

Table 5
t-test for paired samples of picture groups

Variable Number of pairs Corr 2-tail
Mean SD SE of
Posttest picture 32 .955 .000 33.1250 7.156 1.265
Pretest picture 18.6875 8.873 1.569

Paired Differences

Mean SD SE of Mean t-value DF 2-tail Sig t-critical
14.4375 2.940 .520 27.78 31 .000 2.042

95% CI (13.377, 15.498)   p<.05
As the results in the Table 5 show, the t-value (27.78) does exceed the t-critical (2.042) implying that the picture group performed significantly better in the posttest. That is, the treatment had a positive effect on the students in picture group, and their level of vocabulary improved.

Table 6
t-test for paired samples of context groups

Variable Number of pairs Corr 2-tail
Mean SD SE of
Posttest context 32 .975 .000 25.3125 8.544 1.510
Pretest context 18.3125 7.320 1.294

Paired Differences

Mean SD SE of Mean t-value DF 2-tail Sig t-critical
7.0000 2.155 .381 18.37 31 .000 2.042

95% CI (6.223, 7.777)   p<.05

As the results in the Table 6 show, the t-value (18.37) does exceed the t-critical (2.042) implying that the context group performed significantly better in the posttest.

Table 7
t-test for paired samples of control groups

Variable Number of pairs Corr 2-tail
Mean SD SE of
Posttest control 32 .982 .000 23.4688 10.746 1.900
Pretest control 18.8750 8.087 1.430

Paired Differences

Mean SD SE of Mean t-value DF 2-tail Sig t-critical
4.5938 3.181 .562 8.17 31 .000 2.042

95% CI (3.447, 5.741)     p<.05

As the results in the Table 7 show, the t-value (8.17) exceeds the t-critical (2.042)implying that the control group performed significantly better in the posttest. Therefore, as the results of the above analyses reveal, the hypotheses formulated in this study are rejected. That is, picture seems to be a good method in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL students, and it is more suitable than context. Moreover, it was revealed that picture and context are better than the traditional way.

In the preceding section, the obtained data from the performance of the control and two experimental groups was analyzed. Based on the findings, the null hypotheses were rejected. The three groups scored differently in the post tests, and the differences were statistically significant. As the results of the one-way ANOVA for performance on the posttest showed, F ratio (10.5255) exceeded the F critical value (3.09) and it implied that there were significant differences among subjects` performances on different methods of teaching vocabulary items. To find where these differences were located, a Scheffe Test was carried out and the results showed that the differences laid between picture group and control group, and also picture group and context group. In other words, picture group performed better than the other groups. Therefore, the null hypotheses were rejected. Consequently, by rejecting the null hypotheses, the researcher can claim that pictures are more useful and can play an important role in teaching vocabulary items to Iranian EFL learners.

Limitations of the Study
Certain limitations are imposed on this study.  First, since the presentation of abstract nouns is not as easy as the presentation of concrete words, only concrete words which refer to physical objects were used. Second, the language chosen was restricted to the elementary level of Simin Language Institute in Iran. Third, the subjects involved in this research were 160 male Iranian junior high school students.

Pedagogical Implications
Since vocabulary is a very important part of the language, a teacher must equip himself with up-to-date techniques and methods of teaching them. So, the results of this research can be valuable for language teachers. Also, it could help those dealing with foreign language teaching, such as syllabus designers, material developers, test makers, and the like.

Suggestions for Further Research

Students at other levels of language proficiency, i.e. intermediate or advanced, can be subjects for another experiment.

The same experiment with female students within the same age range would be necessary to confirm the findings of this study.

The setting which was chosen for this study was a language institute. The same techniques could be used in other settings, for example, schools and universities.

Other nationalities can be examined in a new research.
The same research can be done on teaching “abstract” vocabulary items.

In this study, picture and context were used to teach vocabulary items to EFL students. In another research, pictures and contexts can be used to teach other components of the language, such as grammar.

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Appendix I

Pretest & Posttest of Vocabulary

Vocabulary test(Pretest)                     Student’s Name: ………………….

1-The children are watching TV in the …………………….. .
1. bathroom          2. living room         3. classroom            4. garage
2- There are a lot of apple trees in the ……………………….. .
1. cinema             2. hall                      3. garden                 4. bucket
3- David is in the …………………. . He is washing himself.
1. class                 2. park                    3. kitchen                4. bathroom
4- Kate is playing the …………………………. .
1. pencil               2. piano                  3. book                    4. glasses
5- Ella is putting on  her ………………………. .
1. radio                2. lamp                    3. glasses                 4. TV
6- The man is wearing a nice ………………… .
1. sack                 2. blouse                 3. shirt                      4. chair
7- The girl wearing a blue ……………..is his sister.
1. napkin             2. jug                       3. tent                       4. skirt
8- The boy who is wearing a brown ……………….is my brother.
1. vase                 2. quilt                     3. fan                       4. jacket
9- Sara is wearing a red ………………….and a green skirt.
1. puppet             2. trousers                3. jeans                    4. blouse
10- Is he wearing jeans ?
No, he isn’t. He is wearing ……………………… .
1. rubber             2. trousers                3. dress                     4. bed
11- His father usually has ………………….., cheese, and tea for breakfast.
1. desk                2. mug                     3. bread                     4. fridge
12- Sam usually drinks ……………………juice in the afternoons.
1-apple               2. cup                      3. rice                        4. egg
13- Ella sometimes eats boiled …………….. for breakfast.
1. eggs                2. bread                   3. toast                      4. cheese
14- James always eats …………………….and bread for breakfast.
1. pan                 2. board                   3. cheese                   4. kitten
15- There are some books on the ………………….. .
1. light                2. glasses                  3. cat                        4. table
16- A…………………….can speak and walk.
1. bat                  2. robot                     3. wall                      4. car
17- Harry can’t  ride a………………….. .
1. chess                2. ball                      3. bicycle                4. cooker
18- Bert can’t …………………..dinner.
1. climb               2. run                       3. listen                   4. cook
19- Where is my …………………………?
I want to play tennis.
1. ax                     2. pen                      3. racket                  4. watch
20- Do you like to play football ?
No, I don’t.       I like to play………………….. .
1. volley ball        2. walk                     3. ruler                    4. bicycle
21- Kate is writing a ……………………. for her friend.
1. letter                 2. pencil                   3. stamp                  4. post
22- Have you got a ……………….. ?  I want to post this letter.
1. stamp                2. desk                     3. date                    4. book
23- Can you drive a ………………………… ?
1. horse                2. queen                    3. car                     4. bicycle
24- I can ride a ………………………… .
1. robot                2. video                    3. motorcycle          4. taxi
25-What is the ………………?   It’s  12 April.
1. address             2. date                      3. box                     4. letter
26- I can ………………………… in water.
1. drive                2. cook                      3. climb                  4. swim
27- Kate’s father can ………………………… a car.
1. work                2. drive                      3. study                  4. run
28- There is a hole. You should…………………… .
1. eat                   2. jump                       3. write                  4. read
29- I can ………………..into water, but I can’t swim.
1. make               2. close                       3. open                  4. dive
30- Can you ride a ……………….. .
1. horse               2. glass                        3. jug                        4. chair
31- I am going to England.
Have you got a ……………….. ?
1. magazine 2. notebook               3. passport              4. piano
32- It is very dark. Have you got a ……………….. ?
1. ball                   2. torch                     3. newspaper          4. ladder
33- There is a high ……………….. .you should climb it.
1. mountain          2. zebra                     3. sack                    4. tap
34- You can ski, because there is a deep ……………….. .
1. bucket               2. snow                     3. magazine            4. watch
35- I want to climb the wall. Have you got a ……………….. .
1. rope                  2. lighter                     3. torch                 4. rubber
36- He was killed in a car ……………….. .
1. accident            2. net                          3. light                   4. magazine
37- There is a lot of ……………….. at 8 o’clock in the morning.
There are many cars in the streets.
1. kite                   2. cinema                    3. restaurant           4. traffic
38- A ……………….. is a large strong car for carrying things.
1. lorry                 2. gun                          3. motorbike          4. taxi
39- Jenny is phoning in a ……………….. .
1. fridge               2. telephone box          3. tape                    4. sink
40- Cindy is lying in a bed at the ……………….. . She had an accident yesterday.
1. hospital            2. school                       3. garden                 4. lake
41- Please, listen to the ……………….. , then answer the questions.
1.                        2. light                           3. table                    4. tape
42- Kate is typing a letter with a ……………….. .
1. typewriter        2. fork                          3. zip                       4. newspaper
43- Let’s go to the ……………….. to see a film.
1. bus                 2. zoo                           3. park                     4. cinema
44- Put your shirts and sweater in the ……………….. .
1. suitcase          2. cup                           3. fridge                   4. envelope
45- Keyhan is the name of a ……………….. in Iran.
1. cap                 2. book                          3. music                  4. newspaper

Vocabulary Test (Posttest)                Student’s Name:  ………………..

1- His mother is cooking lunch in the ……………………….. .
1. dining room    2. freezer                     3. bedroom                4. kitchen
2- Her father is mending the car in the ………………………. .
1. garage             2. post office               3. living room            4. school
3- Their family are having dinner in the …………………….. .
1. bedroom         2. bank                        3. dining room            4. zoo
4- Sam is switching on the …………………… .
1. lamp               2. letter                        3. tin                           4. door
5- A lot of  ……………… are sitting in the hall and talking to each other.
1. people            2. clothes                     3. doughnuts               4. tables
6- That woman is wearing a beautiful …………………. .
1. dress              2. dish                          3. mat                         4. bag
7- My brother is wearing a …………………..and playing football.
1. blouse            2. tracksuit                   3. mop                        4. dress
8- I wear a ………………….when it is cold.
1. sweater          2. bell                           3. glasses                    4. bag
9- Jack wears a ……………….. when it is warm.
1. pan                2. hat                            3. T-shirt                     4. bus
10- What are you wearing ?
I am wearing blue ………………………. .
1. jeans              2. kite                          3. tap                           4. leg
11- Allen is drinking ……………………….. .
1-potato             2. milk                         3. cheese                     4. tomato
12- We use ………………………to make omelet.
1. carrot             2. coffee                     3. banana                     4. tomato
13- My mother cooks ………………………. for lunch.
1. orange            2. apple                      3. rice                           4. doll
14- Put the milk in the ……………………….. .
1. sandwich       2. wardrobe                3. refrigerator                4. suitcase
15- There are some oranges in the ………………….. .
1. cupboard       2. tank                       3. neck                           4. book
16- Jack makes his …………………when he gets up in the morning.
1. mop                2. zebra                      3. door                        4. bed
17- Ella can …………………..the dishes in the kitchen.
1. wash               2. write                       3. ride                         4. play
18- They are playing …………………..in the yard.
1. football           2. ski                          3. swim                       4. umbrella
19- I have got a robot. He can play ………………………. .
1. mat                 2. chess                      3. bed                          4. homework
20- Sam and James are playing …………………….. .
1. tennis              2. car                         3. dish                          4. swim
21- Put the letter in the ………………….. .
1. radio               2. address                  3. paper                        4. envelope
22- Write your ………………….. on the envelope.
1. paper              2. color                      3. uniform                    4. address
23- What is your father’s job?
He mends the cars.  He is a …………………. .
1. journalist        2. pop singer              3. waiter                       4. mechanic
24- That man carrying the letters is a ………………………. .
1. postman         2. teacher                   3. singer                       4. footballer
25- Harry is writing his homework on the ……………………. .
1. vest                2. window                  3. paper                       4. chair
26- Ella can ………………….. the mountain.
1. climb             2. put                          3. wash                        4. ride
27- My brother can ……………………when there is snow.
1. open              2. wash                       3. ski                           4. cook
28- There is a snake.  You should ……………………. .
1. run                2. clean                       3. swim                        4. do
29- Bert can row a ……………….. in the sea .
1. cup                2. boat                         3. coat                         4. poster
30- Alice’s father can fly a ……………….. .
1. bicycle         2. car                           3. house                       4. plane
31- There is a ……………….. . You can swim in it.
1. lake        2. park                      3. road                        4. mountain
32- It is cold. Have you got a ……………….. ?
I want to make fire.
1. key                  2. map                       3. lighter                     4. desk
33- I have got a ……………….. .Aren’t you hungry?
1. ring                 2. sandwich                3. drink                      4. passport
34- When you go to a journey, you should have a ……………….. .
1. duck                2. puppet                     3. tape                       4. map
35- The door is locked. Where is the ……………….. ?
1. bus                  2. nut                           3. key                        4. kite
36- A ……………….. is a place where two roads meet and the drivers should stop at it.
1. yard                2. house                       3. crossroads              4. garage
37- A car that carries sick people to the hospital is ……………….. .
1. lorry                 2. ambulance              3. van                         4. boat
38- There are a lot of cars in the ……………….. .
1. nest                   2. rope                        3. road                      4. robot
39- I have got a headache, I should see a ……………….. .
1. pianist              2. student                    3. doctor                     4. worker
40- Alice is a ……………….. . She looks after sick people.
1. nurse                2. waiter                      3. singer                     4. mechanic
41- Keyhan Varzeshi is a weekly sports ……………….. .
1. book                2. circle                       3. magazine                4. box
42- Shajarian is a famous ……………….. in Iran.
1. doctor             2. singer                       3. footballer               4. police
43- I’m hungry . Let’s go and have breakfast in the ……………….. .
1. classroom       2. tin                            3. restaurant               4. lake
44- How does your mother cook food in the kitchen?
She cooks on a gas ……………….. .
1. table                 2. mat                         3. cupboard                4. cooker
45- I want to buy a sandwich, but I haven’t got any ……………….. .
1. clothes              2. money                    3. map                        4. food

Appendix II

The Vocabulary ItemsPresented through Contexts

Lesson One

1- All the family are in the living room. The father is reading a

newspaper and the children are watching TV.

2- Jame’s mother is in the kitchen now. She is cooking lunch.

3- The boys are playing with a ball in the garden. They are playing under

the apple trees.

4- A:Where is your car? It is not in your house.

B:I have parked it in the garage.

5- When John came into the house, his mother said “Your hands are very

dirty. Go and wash them in the bathroom.”

6- There are some chairs and a table in our dining room. We eat dinner in

the dining room.

7- The injured boy was taken to hospital in an ambulance. He had an

accident in the street.

8- A:Do you like to go to cinema to see a film?

B: No, I’m not interested in cinema. Let’s go to the park for a walk.

9- When I’m hungry, I usually go to a restaurant and have a meal.

Lesson Two

10- It is very hot. That man took out his coat. Now he is wearing just a

white shirt.

11- Anita wears a long dress in the house. It is very beautiful.

12- The girl wearing a blue skirt and a green coat is her sister. She never

wears jeans or trousers.

13- Do you wear a coat in winter? No, I usually wear a jacket because it

is warmer than a coat.

14- It is very cold. Put on your wollen sweater, if you’re going out.

15-Ella often wears a red blouse under her coat, when she goes to work.

16- It’s too warm today. I can’t wear even a shirt. I just wear a T-shirt.

17- A:What do you wear when you go to school?

B:I wear a white shirt, grey trousers, and black shoes.

18- On Fridays, Eric goes to picnic with his friends. He usually wears a

yellow T-shirt, blue jeans, and green trainers.

Lesson Three

19- In the mornings, Jack has some cheese and bread and a cup of tea for


20- A:What do you drink for breakfast, tea, coffee, or milk?

B: I usually drink milk because it’s good for my health.

21- We have got two apple trees in our house. My mother makes apple

juice and sometimes apple pie from this fruit.

22- A:Karen uses a kind of red fruit to make omelette. Do you know

what that is?

B: Yes, it’s tomato.

23- Our hen laid a large brown egg, and I had it for breakfast.

24- A:What did you have for lunch?

B:I had rice and stew.

25- A:What do you eat for breakfast?

B:First, I take sugar in tea and then I have it with bread and cheese.

26- Peter is very hungry. He is eating a ham sandwich.

27- If you want to keep the food cold, you should put it in the


Lesson Four

28- Khodadad Azizi is a very good footballer. He plays football well.

29- There is a net in the garden and the children are playing volleyball.

30- Look! There are two rackets and a net here. Let’s go to play tennis in

the yard.

31- I want to play tennis with my friend. But I can’t find my rackets.

32- Michael and Allen played chess with each other. At the end, Michael

checkmated Allen’s king.

33- Harry is swimming across the river. He is swimming on his back.

34- When there is a lot of snow, I ski down the hill near my house. It is

my favourite sport.

35- A child fell into the river. Her father dived into the water to save her.

36- When I play basketball, I wear my tracksuit.

Lesson Five

37- Monkeys can climb the trees well. They go up the trees very fast.

38- A:Can you drive a car?

B: No, I can’t. But my father can drive. He’s a taxi driver.

39- Look! The children are very happy. They are jumping up and down.

40- He is late for the bus. He is running very fast to the bus-stop.

41- Your hands are dirty. You should wash them before lunch.

42- Alice’s mother is in the kitchen. She is cooking pizza for dinner.

43- Bob’s father was not a good driver. Last year, he was killed in a car


44- When the cars come to a crossroads, they should stop to let the other

cars pass.

45- There’s usually a heavy traffic at this time of day. Many cars move in

the streets.

Lesson Six

46- A:What kind of car have you got?

B:We have got a Benz.

47- Harry’s father bought a new red bicycle for his birthday. He doesn’t

have to go to school on foot.

48- I can row a boat, but I travelled across the river in a motor boat.

49- Policemen usually ride on motorcycles in big cities, because it’s

easier than driving a car.

50- A:How do you go to Mashad, by plane or car?

B:I go by plane. I like flying in the sky.

51- When Philip broke his leg, an ambulance took him to hospital.

52- A:How did you carry these large pieces of wood?

B:We carried them with a lorry.

53- The road to the North of Iran is full of cars in summer.

54- When I was in the street, I wanted to phone my wife to tell her that I

wasn’t able to go home. But I couldn’t find a telephone box.

Lesson Seven

55- Emily’s friend is not here. She is in another city. So, Emily is writing

a letter for her.

56- She wrote a letter, put it in an envelope, and posted it.

57- A: What’s that on the envelope?

B:It’s a stamp. You should stick a stamp on to a letter, then post it.

58- A: What’s your address?

B: It’s 32 Azadi street, Tehran.

59- Today’s date is the 20th of May.

60- Give me a piece of paper. I’m going to write your names on it.

61- A:Where are you going?   B: I’m going to Canada.

A:Have you got a passport to cross the border?   B:Yes, I have.

62- There are many weekly magazines in Iran, such as Keyhan Varzeshi,

Zane Rooz, and Film magazines.

63- My father buys Keyhan newspaper everyday. He reads it to know

about the latest news of the world.

Lesson Eight

64- Allen is sick. He can’t go to school today. He should see a doctor.

65- Fiona’s mother is a nurse. She looks after sick people. Her job is

very difficult.

66- Jack is a mechanic. He works in a garage and mends cars.

67- David works in a post office. He carries a bag full of letters. He is a


68- I like music very much, and my favourite singer is Ali Reza


69- Alice went to her friend’s house. There was a party and there were

many people at the party. All of them were happy.

70- We have got a robot. Its name is Brain Box. It can speak, walk, and

clean the house. My mother is very happy to have it.

71- It costs two thousand tomans. I can’t buy it, because I haven’t got

enough money.

72- Cindy likes music very much. She also plays the piano well.

Lesson Nine

73- My father is very old. He can’t see well. He wears glasses when he

reads a book.

74- At night, when it gets dark, my mother turns the lamp on.

75- A:Where is your brother?

B:He’s in his room listening to a tape. He likes music very much.

76- Janet works in a company. She is a fast typist. Every day, she types

many letters with a typewriter.

77- Switch on your torch and show me the way. Here is very dark.

78- A:I want to smoke a cigarette. Have you got a lighter?

B:No, but I have got a box of matches.

79- Her mother laid the table, then said “Dinner is ready; come to the


80- Kate is in the kitchen. She has washed the dishes and now she is

putting them into the cupboard.

81- Jack said good night to his father and mother and went to bed to


Lesson Ten

82- Scotland is a cold country. In winter, there is often a heavy fall of


83- Damavand is a very high mountain near Tehran. Next Friday, I’m

going to climb it.

84- There is a big lake near our city. You can swim and go fishing there.

85- There are three ways here. I don’t know where to go. Take out your

map, and show me the right way.

86- The children tied a piece of rope to the tree and used it as a swing.

87- Horse is a nice animal. It carries many things and you can also ride

on it.

88- A:How do you carry your clothes when you travel?

B:I put my shirts, socks, sweater, and coat in a suitcase.

89- A:Open the door, please.

B: But it is locked and I haven’t got the key.

90- We have got an electric cooker in our kitchen and my mother always

cooks food on it.


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